Design of Mechanical Hydraulic Jack. preserbelleodo.mlh, MohdSalahuddin b. MohdJibranBaig,MdAzam Ali Farooky,. Mohammed Siddique Ahmed, MohdRiyazUddin. PDF | On Oct 1, , Sherry Kwabla Amedorme and others published Modification of an Existing Small Hydraulic Jack for Lifting Light Duty. The primary mechanism with which force is applied varies, depending on the specific type of jack, but is typically a screw thread or a hydraulic cylinder. Hydraulic jacks tend to be stronger and can lift heavier loads higher, and include bottle jacks and floor jacks.
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Hydraulic Jacks & Tools User information. The system pressure determines the force of the hydraulic cylinder. The oil displacement determines the piston travel. A hydraulic jack operates based on this two cylinder system. .. water to Paris was lost in the files, not to be discovered and publicized till late in the last century . preserbelleodo.ml#q=hydraulic+jack+pdf+file&hl=en&safe=active&prmd . Operating Manual - Jacks C (JHS).docx. Seite 1. OPERATION MANUAL. Please read first before starting work. HYDRAULIC JACKS JHS. Type. JHS 3. JHS 5.
The piston divides the inside of the cylinder in two chambers. The piston has sliding rings and seals.
Working of jack The hydraulic cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel in which a piston connected to a piston rod moves back and forth. The barrel is closed on each end by the cylinder bottom also called the cap end and by the cylinder head where the piston rod comes out of the cylinder. Ground Breakers……The auto Mobile Company 8. Competence in working under bad situations. D L connectirs Dia.
Our company will fit the electric hydraulic car jack. When current is supply to jack its rod came out. In this case you can easily lift up and rotate your car because on wheels it is quite difficult to turn again and again. Ground Breakers……The auto Mobile Company Sales Literature Point of difference is that our jacks are electrical Scissor Car Jack as well as electric hydraulic jack which bring much ease. Sourcing and Fulfillment China industry is our main source where from our company import these jacks.
Up to some how these are our competitors. But there are some local manufactures that are providing the substitutes of our product like local Scissor Car Jack. Future products and services After accomplish this project our company will also start to import some other car parts which are unique in use.
Market Needs People demands products which bring ease in their life in every aspect of life. Target Market Every person who have car is our customer and target market. We do not sell scissor jack directly to customers but only to whole seller or distributors. If we talk about these car jacks currently. As well as they also demand quality product of economical prices.
Market Trend Currently in market several car jacks are available which are locally manufactured. Competition in Pakistan is very low. After launching in Lahore we will grow our product in other cities. Industry Analysis Main industry which deals in electric and hydraulic jacks are in china. Some local manufacturers are making these jacks in Pakistan. Positioning Statement Creating distinctive image of our product in mind of customers as compare to competitors.
Marketing Strategy Our company use market diversification strategy.
Distribution Patterns. Moreover we link our site with some sports. And pop up ads on more used web sites. Zafar who also partners of ground Breakers Company will manage marketing department because they have experience of marketing in different organizations. He did job with a FMCG company. Ahsin who is also partner of company. Second Mr. Musharaf Waheed who is already running his business and know how to control. Yasir and Mr. Fahad and Mr. So that our company silhouette the team in a way. It shows whether the company made any profit in a year.
Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Musharaf Waheed MI 2. Yasir Zafar MI 3. Zafar Iqbal MI 4.
Fahad MI 5. Related Interests Mechanical Engineering Business. Amit Arya. Pratheep Kumar. Manoj Verma. Lionel Christian Jeyaraj. Er Nandkishor Prajapati. Arpit Verma. Jai Chennimalai. Yesu Raja Prasanth. Suhail Abrol. Amit Raj. Arun Prasad. Ramnarayan Meena. Chockalingam Athilingam. Rohan Arora. Paradoxically, although Aristotle taught that knowledge Page no must progress, his teachings eventually came to be crystallized, so to speak, and in the time of Saint Thomas Aquinas , they were even adopted as gospel truth by the church.
In the same period, on the other hand, researchers in the early universities particularly Paris, Oxford, and Cambridge gradually began to establish simple mechanical relationships such as that between velocity and acceleration. Whereas the Greeks tended to reason without recourse to observation, it was the Italian genius Leonardo da Vinci who first emphasized the direct study of nature in its many aspects. Leonardo's hydraulic observations extended to the detailed characteristics of jets, waves, aud eddies, not to mention the flight of birds and comparable facets of essentialIy every other field of knowledge.
In particular, it was Leonardo who first correctly formulated the basic principle of hvdraulics known as continuity: the velocity of flow varies inversely with the cross-sectional area of a stream. Unfortunately, not only were his copious notes writteu in mirror image probably for reasons of secrecy , but, in addition, most of them were lost for several centuries after his death.
Thus his discoveries had little effect on the growth of the science. The second essential coutribution to hydrostatics was made by the Dutch hydraulic engineer Simon Stevin in , nearly two millenia after the time of Archimedes. Stevin showed that the force exerted by a liquid on the base of a vessel is equal to the weight of a liquid column extending from the base to the free surface. That this force does not depend on the shape of the vessel became known as the hydrostatic paradox.
If Leonardo was the first scientific observer of note, it was Galileo who added experimentation to observation, thereby throwing initial light on the problem of gravitational acceleration. In his study of the phenomenon, he noted that a body sliding freely down an inclined plane attained a certain speed after a certain vertical descent regardless of the slope; it is said that he hence advised an engineer that there was no point in eliminating river bends, as the resulting increase in slope would have no effect!
Whereas Leonardo was a loner, Gallleo gathered a small school around him. One of his students, the Abbe Benedetto Castelli c. His Page no younger colleague Evangelista Torricelli applied his mentor's analysis of parabolic free-fall trajectories to the geometry of liquid jets. Torricelli also experimented with the liquid barometer, the vacuum above the liquid column being comparable to the void that Galileo found to develop in a pump whose suction pipe exceeded a certain length; in other words, nature abhorred a vacuum only up to a certain point!
The French scientist Edme Mariotte is often called the father of French hydraulics because of the breadth of his experimentation; this included such matters as wind and water pressure and the elasticity of the air, a quality which we usually associate with the name of the Englishman Robert Boyle whereas the latter appears to have coined the word hydraulics, in France Boyle's law bears the name of Mariotte.
Only a few years younger than Mariotte, the Italian Domenico Guglielmini is similarly considered by many to have been the founder of the Italian school.
But whereas Mariotte was a laboratory experimenter, Guglielmini made extensive field measurements of river flow. Interestingly enough, Guglielmini eventually became a professor of medicine! At about the same time, the short-lived French savant Blaise Pascal concerned himself with the same barometric problems as the equally short-lived Torricelli not to mention Mariotte , but it was Pascal who finally completed the principles of hydrostatics. Not only did he clarify the transmissibility of pressure from point to point and its application to the hydraulic jack, but he also showed that the barometric i.
Rene Descartes , the French scientist to whom we owe the Cartesian coordinate system, sought valiantly to reconcile the Aristotelian teachings that had been adopted by his church with the mechanics of the solar system.
He thus hypothesized that the planets were carried in their orbits by a system of giant vortices endowed with a fixed "quantity of movement.
Newton Page no even conducted a variety of experiments on the resistance due to fluid tenacity, elasticity, want of lubricity, and inertia encountered by bodies in motion to prove that nothing of the sort occurred in space. In the course of these studies, he formulated the speed of sound in air except for the adiabatic constant , the basis of viscous shear, and the equation of what we now call form drag except that he mistakenly considered shape itself to be of no importance.
He also invented what he termed the theory of fluxions, now known as the calculus. Newton's German contemporary Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz conceived the principle of energy, though without the fraction onehalf in the kinetic-energy term, and as a result his principle gave different results from Newton's momentum principle when used to describe the same phenomenon.
Leibniz also developed a form of the calculus, and his colleagues and Newton's soon began to accuse the other of plagiarism, a dispute which, though largely unjustified, produced a considerable rift between the English and the German scientists. One of the earliest mathematicians to apply Leibniz's calculus and even to contribute some of the nomenclature still used today was the Swiss Johann Bernoulli , who was also noteworthy for the mathematical training of his son Daniel and his son's comrade Leonhard Euler Johann thereafter went to Paris to collaborate with the French nobleman the Marquis de l'Hopital; Daniel became a member of the Russian academy at St.
Petersburg, where he was later joined bv Euler. L'Hopital eventually published his and Johann's largely the latter's joint findings without due credit to his collaborator, much to Johann's chagrin. When Daniel published in the original treatise Hydrodynamica, Johann proceeded to write a book that he called Hydraulica, which -- whether through envy or bitterness over l'Hopital's failure to acknowledge his contribution -- he purposely predated a full ten years! Daniel's work contained much that was new for example, the use of manometers, the kinetic theory of gases, and iet propulsion but nowhere in the book or in his father's either can one find what is known as the Bernoulli theorem.
Just as its source, Leibniz's energy principle, consisted of only potential Page no and kinetic terms, so too did the Bernoulli equation; the corresponding pressure term was evaluated separately by means of Newton's momentum equation. In actuality, the first true Bernoulli equation was derived by Euler, an outstanding mathematician, from his equations of acceleration for the conditions of steady, irrotational flow under gravitational action.
Euler also deserved credit for a number of equations of hydraulics and for inventing at least on paper a workable hydraulic turbine. Worthy of mention in the same breath as Euler and the Bernoullis was Jean Lerond d'Alembert , best known for his coeditorship of the French encyclopedia but also a mathematician in his own right. He proved in that under steady, irrotational conditions a fluid should offer no resistance to the relative motion of an immersed body: the d'Alembert paradox.
D'Alembert is also known for having been one of three French scientists to have made in what were said to have been the first towing-tank tests of ship-model drag.
Even Franklin was not the first to conduct scale-model tests, credit for which is due John Smeaton , an English engineer who was one of the very few practical people in his country to become a member of the Royal Society in the course of the next century or so.
In his prize-winning paper of , "An experimental Inquiry concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to turn Mills, and other Machines, depending on a Circular Motion", Smeaton described experiments on models of undershot wheels, overshot wheels, and windmills, evaluating there from the general power relationships.
Two essential measuring instruments came into being at this time, the Pitot tube and the rotating arm. The first still bears the name of its inventor, the Frenchman Henri de Pitot , who called it a "machine" for determining the speed of flowing water. It consisted of two vertical glass tubes connected at their top by a valve, one tube simply being open at the bottom and the other Lshaped with its open end pointing upstream; the difference in water level between the two tubes after closure of the valve and their withdrawal from the flow permitted the velocity to be computed.
Use of a rotating arm to propel a body Page no through air for its drag determination was developed bv the Englishman Benjamin Robins , who also invented the ballistic pendulum. The matter of fluid resistance is probably the most important one in the field of hydraulics. Until the latter part of the eighteenth century, little was known about the phenomenon, whether in connection with flow through conduits or around immersed bodies.
The d'Alembert paradox, obviously, was of little engineering use. On the other hand, d'Alembert's contemporary Antoine Chezy discovered a simple resistance relationship for streams which is now known by his name. Unfortunately, his report to the Corps des Ponts et Chaussees on the supply of water to Paris was lost in the files, not to be discovered and publicized till late in the last century bv the American Clemens Herschel On the other hand, Chezy's fellow countryman Pierre Louis George Du Buat not only conducted a wide variety of experiments but also wrote an excellent textbook on hvdraulics which in spite of his being forced to flee during the revolution went through three successively enlarged editions.
Du Buat formulated perceptively the resistance of closed conduits and was the first to show that the drag of immersed bodies resulted more from the suction produced at the rear than from the pressure exerted at the front.
Granted thatthe Italians, Germans, and to some degree the English made notable contributions in the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the leadership was definitely French, mainly through the influence of the Corps des Ponts et Chaussees, which had been functioning effectively since its founding in For example, in Louis Marie Henri Navier , a bridge engineer, was the first to attempt the extension of the Euler equations of acceleration to include the flow of a viscous fluid.
Though he did not comprehend the essential mechanism of viscous action, his results were mathematically correct. The same equations were developed with groater comprehension somewhat later by the mathematician Baron Augustin Louis de Cauchy , next by the mechanician Simeon Denis Poisson , and finally in by the Cambridge professor George Gabriel Stokes , the latter eventually applying the equations to the resistance of small spheres.
It is significant, however, that in the meantime a more general form of the equations was developed by Jean-Claude Barre de Saint-Venant and later found to be applicable Page no www. A few years later the French physician Jean Louis Poiseuille repeated the experiments independently using even liner tubes to simulate blood vessels, and oil and mercury in addition to water.
Except in Germany, the phenomenon is known as Poiseuille flow, even though neither Poiseuille nor Hagen really understood the mathematics of the phenomenon. Hagen, however, had remarked in an paper that the flow was not always laminar, the efflux jet sometimes being clear and sometimes frosty; similarly, sawdust suspended in the water sometimes moved in straight lines and sometimes very irregularly; in the latter instances he noted that his resistance equation no longer applied.
Though countless contributors to hydraulic science of this period are to be found in the ever-growing literature, only a few can be mentioned at this point. In addition to Bernoulli, the men whose names are now best known in hydraulics were two Englishmen who lived in the latter part of the last century.